在寫作時引用別人的話,應該怎麼寫呢?什麼時候要用逗號、什麼時候用句點呢?直接引用別人的話叫作『Quoted Speech』或『Direct Speech』;引用第三者的話則是『Indirect Speech』或『Reported Speech』。這個章節是『名詞子句』裡的一部份,如果你還不知道名詞子句是什麼,最好先讀讀上一篇

Quoted Speech 的注意事項:
1. 引用內容要用引號包起來(quotation mark ' 或 double-quotation marks ")

2. 引用內容的句首要大寫,就像一般的完整句子。

3. 如果把『某某說』這幾個字放在引用句之後,通常會把主動詞對調。例如:
  "I'm a student," said Mary.
  主動詞不對調(Mary said)也是可以的,只是通常會對調。
  為什麼呢?沒有為什麼。請你把它背起來。:p
  不過,如果說話者是代名詞(I, you, he,...),則主動詞不對調。

4. 描寫對話場景時,換人說話的時候才換段,否則就寫在同一段。例如:
  Henry explained, "I overslept this morning because my clock alarm didn't ring." He paused, looked at her face, and continued, "Don't be angry please. I swear to be on time tomorrow."
  "I won't believe you any more," said Mary calmly and indifferently.
  但如果同一個人說了好幾段,就要在每個段落之前加引號。例如:
  Obama started, "We the people, in order to form a more perfect union.
  "Two hundred and twenty one years ago, ..... blablablabla....
  "The document.... blablabla....."

5. 標點(啊哈,最麻煩的來了)
  引用的寫法分成以下三種:
  (1) 【中文】某人說:『叭啦叭啦。』
   這種最簡單,就是記得在『說』字之後加逗點,然後把引用內容括起來即可。
   【英例】George yelled, "Marry me!"
  (2) 【中文】『叭啦叭啦。』某人說。
   這種的標點要特別小心。一般句子的結束只有三個方法:句號、驚嘆號、或者問號。而這裡的『叭啦叭啦』之後要用逗號代替句號,因為這個句子還沒完,原本的句號會挪到『某人說』之後。(若叭啦叭啦裡面原本是用驚嘆號或問號結尾則不用改變。)
   【英例】"I won't marry you," replied Jenny.
       "I won't marry such a poor guy like you!" shouted Jenny.
       "I won't marry you. Are you crazy?" laughed Jenny.
  (3) 【中文】『叭啦叭啦,』某人說,『叭啦叭啦。』
   這種寫法是把『某人說』插在一個完整的句子中間,所以『某人說』之後要加逗點。
   【英例】"I won't marry you," responded Jenny, "unless you buy me a diamond."
   注意第二個引號開頭的 unless 並沒有大寫 U,因為那不是一個新句子。

好了,Quoted Speech 簡單介紹完畢,接著講 Reported Speech。也就是像報紙上寫『邱薏仁說他沒有把十億元放進自己口袋』這種引述別人說的話。

Reported Speech 只有一個重點:把說話者的內容倒退一個時態 -- 現在式變成過去式、過去式變成過去完成式、過去完成式則不變。例如:
"Can you help me with my homework?" asked David.
→ David asked me if I could help him with his homework.

"Is what I've heard true?" I wondered.
→ I wondered if what I'd heard was true.

有時候會出現『使用過去式的未來』這種怪句子....
"Are you going to go skiing tomorrow?" asked Peggy.
→ Peggy asked me if I was going to go skiing tomorrow.

不過也有不用倒退的時候。例如敘述一件不變的事實:
My young daughter often asked me why the sky is blue?

或者表示『說』的那個動詞使用現在式時,說話內容也可以保持原時態。例如:
He asks me if I want to go shopping with him.

【課後練習】把以下句子改正:
1. Tell the taxi driver where do you want to go.

2. He asked me that what did I intend to do after I graduate?

3. What does a patient tell a doctor it is confidential.

4. What my friend and I did it was our secret. We didn't even tell our parents what did we do.

5. The doctor asked that if I felt okay? I told him that I don't feel well.

6. Is true you almost drowned? my friend asked me. Yes, I said. I'm really glad to be alive.

7. It is a fact that I almost drowned makes me very careful about water safety whenever I go swimming.

8. When I asked the taxi driver to drive faster he said I will drive faster if you pay me more. At that time I didn't care how much would it cost, so I told him to go as fast as he can.


【答案】
1. Tell the taxi driver where do you want to go.

2. He asked me that what did I intended to do after I graduated.

3. What does a patient tells a doctor it is confidential.

4. What my friend and I did it was our secret. We didn't even tell our parents what did we do had done.

5. The doctor asked that if I felt okay. I told him that I don't didn't feel well.

6. "Is it true (that) you almost drowned?" my friend asked me. "Yes," I said. "I'm really glad to be alive."

7. It is a The fact that I almost drowned makes me very careful about water safety whenever I go swimming.

8. When I asked the taxi driver to drive faster, he said, "I will drive faster if you pay me more." At that time I didn't care how much would it would cost, so I told him to go as fast as he can could.

最後這題也可以改成 indirect speech:
When I asked the taxi driver to drive faster, he said I will he would drive faster if you pay me I paid him more. At that time I didn't care how much would it would cost, so I told him to go as fast as he can could.



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